# Unit 7

Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry

## Period 1 Calendar

## Period 9 Calendar

## Chapter 19: Chemical Thermodynamics

19.1 Spontaneous reactions

Describe reactions in terms of spontaneity, reversibility and state functions

19.2 Entropy and the 2nd law

Explain what entropy is, its role in reaction spontaneity, and quantify the value of entropy for phase changes (ΔS = qrev/T)

19.3 The molecular interpretation of entropy

Explain entropy in terms of molecular motion and explain how it changes with temperature and phase changes.

Quantitatively explain entropy in terms of possible arrangements of atoms/molecules and Boltzmann’s constant (S = klnW)

19.4 Entropy changes in chemical reactions

Qualitatively and quantitatively determine the change in entropy for chemical reactions (ΔS= ∑Sproducts - ∑Sreactants)

19.5 Gibbs Free Energy

Explain the significance of Gibbs free energy and what values are associated with spontaneous reactions, nonspontaneous reactions and reactions at equilibrium. SW calculate the change in Gibbs free energy using known values at standard conditions. ( ΔG= ∑Gproducts - ∑Greactants )

19.6 Free Energy and Temperature

Use both changes in entropy and changes in enthalpy and temperature to determine the spontaneity of a chemical reaction by applying them to the Gibbs Free Energy equation. (ΔG= ΔH – TΔS)

19.7 Free Energy and the equilibrium constant

Calculate the change in free energy at nonstandard conditions as well as relate Keq to standard free energy. (ΔG= ΔGo + RT ln(Q))

Chapter 19 Resources

## Chapter 20: Electrochemistry

20.1+2 Redox reactions and balancing them

Determine the oxidation number of various atoms in a compound, identify what has been oxidized/reduced in a chemical reaction, identify oxidizing/reducing agents and balance by using the half reaction method in acidic as well as basic solutions.

Review videos: Determining oxidation states

20.3 Voltaic Cells

Describe the structure of a voltaic cell and explain what is occurring at an atomic level as well as why it is occurring.

Bonus video: You start at the anode

20.4+5 Cell EMF and Spontaneity of reactions

Objectives: video lesson 20.4 and video lesson 20.5 or text and text

Use standard reduction potentials of each half-cell in a voltaic cell to calculate the electromotive force (EMF, aka. cell potential).

Describe the spontaneity of these cells based upon the EMF and calculate the change in Free Energy (ΔG = -nFE)

20.6 Effect of concentration on cell EMF

Calculate the EMF at nonstandard conditions using the Nernst Equation (E = Eo – RT/nF ln(Q) OR: E = Eo – .0592/n log(Q) ) and relate it to the equilibrium constant.

Electrochemistry Lab

Objectives:

Design and carry out a repeatable lab procedure using the Nernst Equation to determine the concentrations of 2 different solutions (out of 3).

Publish your results for peer review

Activities

20.7 Batteries

Objectives: (text)

Describe the construction of common batteries and explain how they function.

20.8 Corrosion

Explain what corrosion is, its significance in modern society and ways to prevent it.

Cool videos:

20.9 Electrolysis

Describe the process of electrolysis, how it is set up its importance in modern materials and Quantitatively determine the amount of work done during this process.

Chapter 20 Resources